Table of Contents
1- Buying Guide
2- Leather Crash Testing Video
3- CE Armour Explained Video
4- Why wear protective gears Video
5- Safety Gears Protection in Action Video
6- Motorcycle Jackets Video
7- Motorcycle Hand signals for group riding Video
8- How are Helmets Made Video
9- How are steel toe boots made Video
10- How is an abrasion test done Video
11- Carlos Himalayan road Trip Video
12- RE Himalayan launch Full Video
13- Engine oil Explained (Text and Video)
14- RE EFI Pump fail explained (Text and Video)
15- Expensive Helmets and Affordable helmets Comparison Video
16- ABS Explained (Text and Video)
17- Spark Plugs Explained (Text and Video)
18- How are Air Filters made Video
19- How are Gears made Video
20- How are Shock Absorbers made Video
21- How are Engine Pistons made Video
22- How are Crankshaft and Camshafts made Video
23- How are Ball Bearings Made Video
24- How does a Manual transmission works Video
25- How does a Automatic transmission works Video
26- How does a Motorcycle Clutch works Video
27- Difference between clutch Slip vs Drag Video
28- DIY- How to make a Motorcycle Lift/Repair Table Video
29- Motor Vehicle Alteration Law in India (Complete Guide)
30- Turbocharger and Supercharger Complete Guide by Big J (Text & Video)
31- Honda Navi First Ride Impression Video
32- Royal Enfield Himalayan First Impression Video
33- Kawasaki Versys 650 Review Video
34- Yamaha YZF R3 vs KTM RC 390 vs Kawasaki Ninja 300 Review Video
35- India Bike Week 2016 Video
36- Indian Super Cross Championship Video
37- MV Agusta Line up Launch in India Video
38- Ducati Multistrada 1200S First Impression Video
39- Alpine Motorcycling Adventure Video
40- Somewhere Else Tomorrow Video
41- Farri & Daanish: A Motorcycling Pre-Wedding Video
42- It's Better in the Wind Short Film
43- The Great Journey Video
44- South America Beautiful Ride Video
45- Nepal Motorcycling on a Royal Enfield
46- Vietnam by Motorcycle Video
47- The Story so far Argentina, Chile & Bolivia Video
48- The Isle Of Man TT 2016 Video
49- Royal Enfield Custom Built Motorcycle for Wheels & Waves 2016
50- Worlds Toughest Off Road Motorbike Series Video
51- Hard Enduro- King of the Hills Video
52- Ducati Panigale 959 Review Video
53- India Road Master First Review Video
54- Yoshimura Factory Tour Video
55- Triumph Thruxton R launch Alert Video
56- Matt Capri RE Continental GT Customization Video (Part 1 & 2)
57- Life on a Royal Enfield Video by Ramblers MC
58- Enfield Riders Film Video.
59- RE 2015 Film "Ride forward on a Royal Enfield" Video
60- Wolf Pack India Video with Jack Jigg
61- Royal Enfield Escapade to Bhor 2016 Video
62- Belgium Impossible Climb Video
63- Wild Crashes & Insane FMX Moment Video
64- Royal Enfield Factory Custom Bike Video
1- Buying Guide
2- Bike Leather Crash Testing Video
3- What is CE Armour?
4- Why Wear expensive protective gears?
5- Motorcycle Safety Gear protection in Action
6- How are Motorcycle Jackets made?
7- Motorcycle Hand Signals for Group Riding Explained
8- How are Motorcycle Helmets Made?
9- How are Steel Toe Boots made
10- How is an Abrasion Test done?
11- A Himalayan Road Trip by Carlos Costa
12- The Royal Enfield Himalayan (Full Video)
13- Motorcycle Engine Oil (Elaborated) By Big "J"
Lets understand whats Motorcycle engine oil is and Different Types.
* Engine Oil- Motor oil or engine oil is an oil used for lubrication of various internal combustion engines. The main function is to lubricate moving parts;
it also cleans, inhibits corrosion, improves sealing, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. Motor oils are derived from petroleum-based and non-petroleum-synthesized chemical compounds. Motor oils today are mainly blended by using base oils composed of hydrocarbons, polyalphaolefins (PAO), and polyinternal olefins (PIO), thus organic compounds consisting entirely of carbon and hydrogen.
The base oils of some high-performance motor oils however contain up to 20% by weight of esters.
* Engine Oil Grades- The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has established a numerical code system for grading motor oils according to their viscosity characteristics. SAE viscosity gradings include the following, from low to high viscosity: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 60. The numbers 0, 5, 10, 15 and 25 are suffixed with the letter W, designating their "winter" (not "weight") or cold-start viscosity, at lower temperature. The number 20 comes with or without a W, depending on whether it is being used to denote a cold or hot viscosity grade. The document SAE J300 defines the viscometrics related to these grades. Kinematic viscosity is graded by measuring the time it takes for a standard amount of oil to flow through a standard orifice, at standard temperatures. The longer it takes, the higher the viscosity and thus higher SAE code. The SAE has a separate viscosity rating system for gear, axle, and manual transmission oils, SAE J306, which should not be confused with engine oil viscosity. The higher numbers of a gear oil (e.g., 75W-140) do not mean that it has higher viscosity than an engine oil.
* Single-grade- A single-grade engine oil, as defined by SAE J300, cannot use a polymeric Viscosity Index Improver (also referred to as Viscosity Modifier) additive. SAE J300 has established eleven viscosity grades, of which six are considered Winter-grades and given a W designation. The 11 viscosity grades are 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, 25W, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60. These numbers are often referred to as the "weight" of a motor oil, and single-grade motor oils are often called "straight-weight" oils. For single winter grade oils, the dynamic viscosity is measured at different cold temperatures, specified in J300 depending on the viscosity grade, in units of mPa·s, or the equivalent older non-SI units, centipoise (abbreviated cP), using two different test methods. They are the Cold Cranking Simulator (ASTMD5293) and the Mini-Rotary Viscometer (ASTM D4684). Based on the coldest temperature the oil passes at, that oil is graded as SAE viscosity grade 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, or 25W. The lower the viscosity grade, the lower the temperature the oil can pass. For example, if an oil passes at the specifications for 10W and 5W, but fails for 0W, then that oil must be labeled as an SAE 5W. That oil cannot be labeled as either 0W or 10W. For single non-winter grade oils, the kinematic viscosity is measured at a temperature of 100 °C (212 °F) in units of mm2/s (millimeter squared per second) or the equivalent older non-SI units, centistokes (abbreviated cSt). Based on the range of viscosity the oil falls in at that temperature, the oil is graded as SAE viscosity grade 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60. In addition, for SAE grades 20, 30, and 1000, a minimum viscosity measured at 150 °C (302 °F) and at a high-shear rate is also required. The higher the viscosity, the higher the SAE viscosity grade is. For some applications, such as when the temperature ranges in use are not very wide, single-grade motor oil is satisfactory; for example, lawn mower engines, industrial applications, and vintage or classic cars.
* Multi-grade- The temperature range the oil is exposed to in most vehicles can be wide, ranging from cold temperatures in the winter before the vehicle is started up, to hot operating temperatures when the vehicle is fully warmed up in hot summer weather. A specific oil will have high viscosity when cold and a lower viscosity at the engine's operating temperature. The difference in viscosities for most single-grade oil is too large between the extremes of temperature. To bring the difference in viscosities closer together, special polymer additives called viscosity index improvers, or VIIs are added to the oil. These additives are used to make the oil a multi-grade motor oil, though it is possible to have a multi-grade oil without the use of VIIs. The idea is to cause the multi-grade oil to have the viscosity of the base grade when cold and the viscosity of the second grade when hot. This enables one type of oil to be used all year. In fact, when multi-grades were initially developed, they were frequently described as all-season oil. The viscosity of a multi-grade oil still varies logarithmically with temperature, but the slope representing the change is lessened. This slope representing the change with temperature depends on the nature and amount of the additives to the base oil. The SAE designation for multi-grade oils includes two viscosity grades; for example, 10W-30 designates a common multi-grade oil. The two numbers used are individually defined by SAE J300 for single-grade oils. Therefore, an oil labeled as 10W-30 must pass the SAE J300 viscosity grade requirement for both 10W and 30, and all limitations placed on the viscosity grades (for example, a 10W-30 oil must fail the J300 requirements at 5W). Also, if an oil does not contain any VIIs, and can pass as a multi-grade, that oil can be labelled with either of the two SAE viscosity grades. For example, a very simple multi-grade oil that can be easily made with modern base oils without any VII is a 20W-20. This oil can be labeled as 20W-20, 20W, or 20. Note, if any VIIs are used however, then that oil cannot be labeled as a single grade. The real-world ability of an oil to crank or pump when cold is potentially diminished soon after it is put into service. The motor oil grade and viscosity to be used in a given vehicle is specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle (although some modern European cars now have no viscosity requirement), but can vary from country to country when climatic or fuel efficiency constraints come into play.
* Synthetic oil- Synthetic lubricants were first synthesized, or man-made, in significant quantities as replacements for mineral lubricants (and fuels) by German scientists in the late 1930s and early 1940s because of their lack of sufficient quantities of crude for their (primarily military) needs. LA significant factor in its gain in popularity was the ability of synthetic-based lubricants to remain fluid in the sub-zero temperatures of the Eastern front in wintertime, temperatures which caused petroleum-based lubricants to solidify owing to their higher wax content. The use of synthetic lubricants widened through the 1950s and 1960s owing to a property at the other end of the temperature spectrum, the ability to lubricate aviation engines at temperatures that caused mineral-based lubricants to break down. In the mid 1970s, synthetic motor oils were formulated and commercially applied for the first time in automotive applications. The same SAE system for designating motor oil viscosity also applies to synthetic oils. Synthetic oils are derived from either Group III, Group IV, or some Group V bases. Synthetics include classes of lubricants like synthetic esters as well as "others" like GTL (Methane Gas-to-Liquid) (Group V) and polyalpha-olefins (Group IV). Higher purity and therefore better property control theoretically means synthetic oil has better mechanical properties at extremes of high and low temperatures. The molecules are made large and "soft" enough to retain good viscosity at higher temperatures, yet branched molecular structures interfere with solidification and therefore allow flow at lower temperatures. Thus, although the viscosity still decreases as temperature increases, these synthetic motor oils have a higher viscosity index over the traditional petroleum base. Their specially designed properties allow a wider temperature range at higher and lower temperatures and often include a lower pour point. With their improved viscosity index, synthetic oils need lower levels of viscosity index improvers, which are the oil components most vulnerable to thermal and mechanical degradation as the oil ages, and thus they do not degrade as quickly as traditional motor oils. However, they still fill up with particulate matter, although the matter better suspends within the oil, and the oil filter still fills and clogs up over time. So, periodic oil and filter changes should still be done with synthetic oil; but some synthetic oil suppliers suggest that the intervals between oil changes can be longer, sometimes as long as 16,000-24,000 km (10,000–15,000 mi) primarily due to reduced degradation by oxidation. Tests show that fully synthetic oil is superior in extreme service conditions to conventional oil, and may perform better for longer under standard conditions. But in the vast majority of vehicle applications, mineral oil based lubricants, fortified with additives and with the benefit of over a century of development, continue to be the predominant lubricant for most internal combustion engine applications.
* A General View- The vast majority of modern motorcycles use the same oil to lubricate the engine, transmission, and the clutch (with the exception of bikes with dry clutches, such as Ducatis, Harley-Davidsons and some BMWs). Normal, "car-derived" motor oils are designed just for engines, but were historically suitable in motorcycles. However, some of the latest American Petroleum Institute, or API specifications are claimed to be completely unsuitable for motorcycles with wet clutches, although reports of clutch slippage may be exaggerated. Representative organisations of motorcycle manufactures, particularly Japanese Automotive Standards Organization, or JASO, work with lubricants manufacturers to create "motorcycle-specific" standards for oils. The relevant oil companies then develop and test automotive oils for motorcycle use. In return, they have two different products with the same chemical content. Many motorcycles have a wet clutch, where the clutch plates are immersed in oil. Some oils make the friction plates in the clutch slippery so that the clutch does not engage properly when shifting gears, or the clutch slips when the engine exceeds a certain torque level. Some oils contain friction reducing chemicals. A properly specified motorcycle oil will still allow for the appropriate lubrication and cooling of a motorcycle clutch, whilst maintaining 100% of the drive to be transmitted by the clutch, even under arduous operating conditions. One element of the JASO-MA standard is a friction test designed to determine suitability for wet clutch usage. An oil that meets JASO-MA is considered appropriate for wet clutch operations. Oils marketed as motorcycle-specific will carry the JASO-MA label. ***kindly Note this contents are extracted from wiki and to be used only for informational purposes.
Why is Motul the best in Engine Oil? Watch all related Videos
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Engine oil tips- What are lubricant standards?
Engine oil tips - What's lubricant quality?
Engine Oil Tips - What is viscosity?
Engine Oil Tips - Viscosity Grades
What is Motul's ESTER Core® technology?
My personal verdict on the functionality of RE 500cc EFI Pump.
What does ABS do?
The necessity for a safety system such as the ABS became obvious under hard braking conditions and when having to slow down on slippery surfaces, say wet asphalt. One of the biggest problems of braking hard when riding a motorcycle is the wheel or wheels lock-up.
As the rider detects a dangerous obstacle and squeezes the brakes, applying excessive force may cause the wheel to stop spinning and this leads to losing the grip. With no firm contact between the tire's contact patch and the asphalt or concrete, the bike becomes unstable and a crash is imminent.
The role of the ABS is to detect the wheel slip fractions of a second before it would normally occur because of the braking force and adjust or modulate the said force, allowing the wheel to keep turning back within the limits of grip.
Now, some would say that a system that counteracts the braking force is silly. It may look so at first, but the technology is really working to the rider's advantage.
The big problem with wheels slipping on the riding surface is that losing control of the whole motorcycle usually occurs in fractions of a second and restoring traction while keeping the bike balanced is only a result of luck, or extreme training, as is the case of professional stunt riders who drift.
Studies have showed that it's way better to prevent the wheels from slipping due to excessive braking force than it is to compensate for losing control, if any such compensation was truly possible.
So what the ABS does is actually limiting the braking force the rider exerts by either squeezing the lever or pressing the foot pedal and keep the wheel spinning. Once the imminence of the locking (and therefore skidding) is avoided, the system re-applies the maximum braking force until the next skid is anticipated. By limiting the max force of the braking maneuver, the ABS systems practically allow riders to use the greatest stopping force possible without locking the wheels.
How does the ABS know wheels would lock?
Good question! While the first ABS brakes relied on purely mechanical components and were terribly imprecise and often showed a very big lag, modern-day electronic technology has made things simpler.
Basically, ABS includes 4 major components: the sensor array, the control unit, the pump and the valves which physically regulate the braking force.
Sensors. While the early ABS technology proved to be unreliable due to a plethora of reading and interpretation errors, the modern systems are equipped with extremely precise sensors, redundant architecture and more safety/ failsafe systems.
The main sensor on a typical ABS is the speed sensor. Motorcycles equipped with ABS are easy to recognize by a special design of the brake discs: slotted design close to the center of the rotor tells even to the untrained eye, that the specific model is an ABS version. Those slots, called pulser rings act like measuring units for the sensors: the more times the sensors can read one another in a given period of time, the greater the speed.
Speed is measured constantly for feeding real-time data to the ABS ECU. While some bikes only have one-wheel ABS, most modern systems have dual-channel ECUs, meaning they receive info from both wheels.
A notable thing must be added: these sensors are detecting the actual speed of the wheels themselves, and not the absolute speed of the motorcycle in relation to the ground: it's exactly this variable that allows the ABS ECU to help detect whether wheel slip will occur in certain situations, as you'll see ahead.
Alongside wheel speed sensors, modern ABS also comprises gyroscopes and handlebar sensors for detecting the leaning angles of the bike. Knowing the bike's lean angle helps present-day ABS provide extended functionality when turning.
The ECU or Electronic Control Unit is the brain of the ABS: it receives info from all the sensors, analyzes the data, compares the results with the specific values and when needed, uses special algorithms to regulate the braking force.
This miniature computer is specialized in such operations and higher-spec ECUs can be constantly updated and can “learn” a lot of scenarios or maps to be used in certain situations.
Even street-oriented bikes come with different ABS mappings, maximizing the riding performance and providing safe braking in various scenarios. Thanks to the digital technology, these ABS mappings can be recalled and cycled through with just a press of a button and they become operational in milliseconds.
The ECU receives multiple readouts from all the bike sensors it is connected to and whose info it can interpret: the higher the frequency of these readouts and the comparison computations, the higher the efficiency of the ABS.
In case the ECU detects a scenario that matches to what the real world would see as a locking wheel followed by the inevitable skid, this computer sends a command to the pump and valves adjusting the braking force as necessary.
The pump and the valves
These are the physical elements used by the ABS to control the braking force. Since the ABS is regulating the pressure in the brake lines, it needs a pump to work both ways, that is, decreasing and increasing the pressure to normal specifications.
While the pump acts like any casual electric pump using a master cylinder and a piston, the operation of the valves is equally simple. When the ABS kicks in, it means the braking pressure the rider applies to the discs is too big, and the ECU calculates how much it should lower it to prevent the wheels from losing grip.
The amount of “release” is sent as electronic data to the solenoid valves which are moved in the right position to decrease the pressure pushing the caliper pistons, easing the stopping force. As the wheel slip potential is eliminated, the ECU sends another command to the pump and moves the valves in another position, allowing the pressure of the initial braking maneuver to be restored and basically re-applying the hard brake.
This process only takes fractions of a second and it will be repeated until the bike stops. When the ABS works, riders will feel slight vibrations in the lever or pedal, as the pressure in the line is constantly modulated.
While some say that the same braking can be obtained by a professional trained rider, this is only partially true, as the human brain cannot have the processing and precision of the digital system in assessing the various riding environments.
A common misconception among riders is that once they throw a leg over a bike equipped with ABS, all their problems are solved in an almost magical way. It's sad to admit it, but it's mostly such fellows who are getting into serious trouble because they are less aware while riding, relying on the false hope that the ABS brakes will compensate for their poor riding.
ABS is, by all means, a system developed to aid the rider in tight situations and it was never designed to take over basic safety precautions and maneuvers.
By allowing the rider to apply the absolute maximum braking force possible repeatedly without losing grip, the bike will obviously stop faster.
Seasoned riders who know their bikes well can also predict when they are about to “lose” one of the wheels, and will ease the braking, reapplying the (almost) full force immediately, also avoiding wheel lock and slip. Well, this is exactly what ABS does, but thousands of times faster. This explanation should have cleared things.
More ABS magic
Modern ABS brakes in new machinery also come to the aid of the riders and contribute to greater safety. They are now interlinked with multiple other systems present on the bike and work together, providing their interpreted data and receiving feedback from other ECUs to offer safer launches, safer turning and easier braking.
Launch Control. When riding from a complete stop, the transmission has to deliver quite a lot of power to defeat inertia and get the bike moving. In quite a lot of such scenarios, a slightly excessive throttle can cause the rear wheel to slip and skid the bike out of control.
By predicting the slip, ABS sends the critical data to the bike and either brakes by itself or limits the fuel delivery, regardless of the throttle position. The bike will launch with the max power possible without any dangerous wheel slip.
Stability Control. A feature commonly met in powerful bikes, the SC helps the rider automatically ease the throttle and avoid skidding even while riding at high speed. Together with the info received from the leaning sensors, wheel sensors, throttle position and the bike's speed relative to the ground, the motorcycle's ECU array can detect whether the rider will be in trouble even before he or she manages to assess the danger.
Over- and understeering are happening all the time, but in some cases, they can lead to very bad results, such as the infamous highside crashes (when oversteering) or going wide, off the road, into guard rails and roadside vehicles/obstacles (when understeering).
While the trajectories through a turn are a complex combination of multiple factors, such as bike speed, leaning angle, road condition, tire type and condition and last but not least, rider experience, mistakes and errors occur at every few turns. The role of the ABS is to compensate the wheels' speed and maintain the best grip on a predictable track.
Finally, distributed ABS brakes now equip motorcycles, and they are so advanced so as to control the braking force for both the front and the rear wheel being only given a single command, i.e. pressing the brake pedal.
Working the same way all the way around, a corresponding rear brake force modulation is produced as the rider squeezes the front brake lever. All these new functions that ABS systems have today are also contributing to better bike stability when braking and swerving past obstacles in critical situations.
Given the major difference that stopping 1 or 2 meters earlier can make when a vehicle cuts a rider off or in any similar emergency scenario, buying a bike equipped with ABS seems a good investment in personal safety and property.
The following are the 3 major benefits of ABS
1. Stopping Distance
As the braking force is controlled and applied electronically, the stopping distance reduces considerably in comparison with non-ABS bikes.
2. Sudden Braking
In the case of ABS, braking is intermittent in nature. So vehicle remains easily steerable during braking also. Following figure shows the comparison of normal bike and ABS-laden bike upon sudden braking.
3. Braking on Slippery surface
Most of the riders must have experienced this condition with their bikes and also know the results. ABS provides equal distribution of braking force on each wheel and provides straight line stopping of vehicle.
17- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Spark Plugs Complete Guide" by "Big J"
What is a Spark Plug & what does it do?
An internal combustion engine requires three key ingredients to operate: air, fuel and spark. A spark plug is a critical engine component that provides the spark that ignites the air-fuel mixture that drives an engine.
A spark plug operates by directing electrical current to flow through a centre electrode, forming a spark across an electrode (or air) gap, completing the circuit to a ground electrode. The centre electrode is surrounded by a ceramic insulator which is non-conductive preventing current leakage and ensuring electricity flows in the desired direction.
Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine.
(E) Exhaust camshaft
(I) Intake camshaft
(S) Spark plug
(R) Connecting rod
(W) Water jacket for coolant flow
Spark Plug Operation?
The plug is connected to the high voltage generated by an ignition coil or magneto. As current flows from the coil, a voltage develops between the central and side electrodes. Initially no current can flow because the fuel and air in the gap is an insulator, but as the voltage rises further it begins to change the structure of the gases between the electrodes. Once the voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of the gases, the gases become ionized. The ionized gas becomes a conductor and allows current to flow across the gap. Spark plugs usually require voltage of 12,000–25,000 volts or more to "fire" properly, although it can go up to 45,000 volts. They supply higher current during the discharge process, resulting in a hotter and longer-duration spark.
As the current of electrons surges across the gap, it raises the temperature of the spark channel to 60,000 K. The intense heat in the spark channel causes the ionized gas to expand very quickly, like a small explosion. This is the "click" heard when observing a spark, similar to lightning and thunder.
The heat and pressure force the gases to react with each other, and at the end of the spark event there should be a small ball of fire in the spark gap as the gases burn on their own. The size of this fireball, or kernel, depends on the exact composition of the mixture between the electrodes and the level of combustion chamber turbulence at the time of the spark. A small kernel will make the engine run as though the ignition timing was retarded, and a large one as though the timing was advanced.
Spark Plug Types?
The following table gives an example of the characteristics and service life of resistor spark plugs when used in a modern unleaded engine:
Service Life **
20,000 - 40,000 kms
Standard style Spark Plug
Service Life **
Nickel Alloy (V-Groove)
20,000 - 40,000 kms
Improved ignitability due to sparking at periphery of the electrode
Service Life **
Long service life and even better ignitability due to a small diameter centre electrode
Service Life **
Extremely long service life. High ignitability due to fine tipped centre electrode
Service Life **
Extremely long service life. Improved high ignitability due to fine tipped centre electrode
Service Life **
DFE Iridium (Double Fine)
Superior ignitability due to fine tip centre and ground electrodes. Excellent service life.
Spark plug construction?
A spark plug is composed of a shell, insulator and the central conductor. It passes through the wall of the combustion chamber and therefore must also seal the combustion chamber against high pressures and temperatures without deteriorating over long periods of time and extended use. Spark plugs are specified by size, either thread or nut (often referred to as Euro), sealing type (taper or crush washer), and spark gap. Common thread (nut) sizes in Europe are 10 mm (16 mm), 14 mm (21 mm; sometimes, 16 mm), and 18mm (24mm, sometimes, 21 mm). In the United States, common thread (nut) sizes are 10mm (16mm),12mm (14mm, 16mm or 17.5mm), 14mm (16mm, 20.63mm) and 18mm (20.63mm).
Different Parts of the Spark Plug?
The top of the spark plug contains a terminal to connect to the ignition system. The exact terminal construction varies depending on the use of the spark plug. Most passenger car spark plug wires snap onto the terminal of the plug, but some wires have eyelet connectors which are fastened onto the plug under a nut. Plugs which are used for these applications often have the end of the terminal serve a double purpose as the nut on a thin threaded shaft so that they can be used for either type of connection.
The main part of the insulator is typically made from sintered alumina, a very hard ceramic material with high dielectric strength, printed with the manufacturer's name and identifying marks, then glazed to improve resistance to surface spark tracking. Its major functions are to provide mechanical support and electrical insulation for the central electrode, while also providing an extended spark path for flashover protection. This extended portion, particularly in engines with deeply recessed plugs, helps extend the terminal above the cylinder head so as to make it more readily accessible.
Dissected modern spark plug showing the one-piece sintered alumina insulator. The lower portion is unglazed. A further feature of sintered alumina is its good heat conduction – reducing the tendency for the insulator to glow with heat and so light the mixture prematurely.
By lengthening the surface between the high voltage terminal and the grounded metal case of the spark plug, the physical shape of the ribs functions to improve the electrical insulation and prevent electrical energy from leaking along the insulator surface from the terminal to the metal case. The disrupted and longer path makes the electricity encounter more resistance along the surface of the spark plug even in the presence of dirt and moisture. Some spark plugs are manufactured without ribs; improvements in the dielectric strength of the insulator make them less important.
D- Insulator tip
On modern (post 1930s) spark plugs, the tip of the insulator protruding into the combustion chamber is the same sintered aluminium oxide (alumina) ceramic as the upper portion, merely unglazed. It is designed to withstand 650 °C (1,200 °F) and 60 kV.
The dimensions of the insulator and the metal conductor core determine the heat range of the plug. Short insulators are usually "cooler" plugs, while "hotter" plugs are made with a lengthened path to the metal body, though this also depends on the thermally conductive metal core. Older spark plugs, particularly in aircraft, used an insulator made of stacked layers of mica, compressed by tension in the centre electrode.
With the development of leaded petrol in the 1930s, lead deposits on the mica became a problem and reduced the interval between needing to clean the spark plug. Sintered alumina was developed by Siemens in Germany to counteract this. Sintered alumina is a superior material to mica or porcelain because it is a relatively good thermal conductor for a ceramic, it maintains good mechanical strength and (thermal) shock resistance at higher temperatures, and this ability to run hot allows it to be run at "self cleaning" temperatures without rapid degradation. It also allows a simple single piece construction at low cost but high mechanical reliability.
Because the spark plug also seals the combustion chamber or the engine when installed, seals are required to ensure there is no leakage from the combustion chamber. The internal seals of modern plugs are made of compressed glass/metal powder, but old style seals were typically made by the use of a multi-layer braze. The external seal is usually a crush washer, but some manufacturers use the cheaper method of a taper interface and simple compression to attempt sealing.
F- Metal case/shell
The metal case/shell (or the jacket, as many people call it) of the spark plug withstands the torque of tightening the plug, serves to remove heat from the insulator and pass it on to the cylinder head, and acts as the ground for the sparks passing through the central electrode to the side electrode. Spark plug threads are cold rolled to prevent thermal cycle fatigue. It's important to install spark plugs with the correct "reach," or thread length. Spark plugs can vary in reach from .0375" to 1.043", such for automotive and small engine applications. Also, a marine spark plug's shell is double-dipped, zinc-chromate coated metal.
G- Central electrode
Central and lateral electrodes
The central electrode is connected to the terminal through an internal wire and commonly a ceramic series resistance to reduce emission of RF noise from the sparking. Non-resistor spark plugs, commonly sold without an "R" in the plug type part number, lack this element to reduce electromagnetic interference with radios and other sensitive equipment. The tip can be made of a combination of copper, nickel-iron, chromium, or noble metals. In the late 1970s, the development of engines reached a stage where the heat range of conventional spark plugs with solid nickel alloy centre electrodes was unable to cope with their demands. A plug that was cold enough to cope with the demands of high speed driving would not be able to burn off the carbon deposits caused by stop–start urban conditions, and would foul in these conditions, making the engine misfire. Similarly, a plug that was hot enough to run smoothly in town could melt when called upon to cope with extended high speed running on motorways. The answer to this problem, devised by the spark plug manufacturers, was to use a different material and design for the centre electrode that would be able to carry the heat of combustion away from the tip more effectively than a solid nickel alloy could. Copper was the material chosen for the task and a method for manufacturing the copper-cored centre electrode was created by Floform.
The central electrode is usually the one designed to eject the electrons (the cathode, i.e. negative polarity) because it is the hottest (normally) part of the plug; it is easier to emit electrons from a hot surface, because of the same physical laws that increase emissions of vapor from hot surfaces (see thermionic emission). In addition, electrons are emitted where the electrical field strength is greatest; this is from wherever the radius of curvature of the surface is smallest, from a sharp point or edge rather than a flat surface (see corona discharge). It would be easiest to pull electrons from a pointed electrode but a pointed electrode would erode after only a few seconds. Instead, the electrons emit from the sharp edges of the end of the electrode; as these edges erode, the spark becomes weaker and less reliable.
At one time it was common to remove the spark plugs, clean deposits off the ends either manually or with specialized sandblasting equipment and file the end of the electrode to restore the sharp edges, but this practice has become less frequent for two reasons:
1. cleaning with tools such as a wire brush leaves traces of metal on the insulator which can provide a weak conduction path and thus weaken the spark (increasing emissions).
2. Plugs are so cheap relative to labor cost, economics dictate replacement, particularly with modern long-life plugs.
The development of noble metal high temperature electrodes (using metals such as yttrium, iridium, tungsten, or palladium, as well as the relatively high value platinum, silver or gold) allows the use of a smaller center wire, which has sharper edges but will not melt or corrode away. These materials are used because of their high melting points and durability, not because of their electrical conductivity (which is irrelevant in series with the plug resistor or wires). The smaller electrode also absorbs less heat from the spark and initial flame energy. At one point, Firestone marketed plugs with polonium in the tip, under the (questionable) theory that the radioactivity would ionize the air in the gap, easing spark formation.
Spark Plug Gap Explained
Gap gauge: A disk with sloping edge; the edge is thicker going counter-clockwise, and a spark plug will be hooked along the edge to check the gap. Spark plugs are typically designed to have a spark gap which can be adjusted by the technician installing the spark plug, by bending the ground electrode slightly. The same plug may be specified for several different engines, requiring a different gap for each. Spark plugs in automobiles generally have a gap between 0.6–1.8 mm (0.024"–0.070"). The gap may require adjustment from the out-of-the-box gap.
A spark plug gap gauge is a disc with a sloping edge, or with round wires of precise diameters, and is used to measure the gap. Use of a feeler gauge with flat blades instead of round wires, as is used on distributor points or valve lash, will give erroneous results, due to the shape of spark plug electrodes. The simplest gauges are a collection of keys of various thicknesses which match the desired gaps and the gap is adjusted until the key fits snugly. With current engine technology, universally incorporating solid state ignition systems and computerized fuel injection, the gaps used are larger on average than in the era of carburetors and breaker point distributors, to the extent that spark plug gauges from that era cannot always measure the required gaps of current cars. Vehicles using compressed natural gas generally require narrower gaps than vehicles using gasoline.
The gap adjustment can be crucial to proper engine operation. A narrow gap may give too small and weak a spark to effectively ignite the fuel-air mixture, but the plug will almost always fire on each cycle. A gap that is too wide might prevent a spark from firing at all or may misfire at high speeds, but will usually have a spark that is strong for a clean burn. A spark which intermittently fails to ignite the fuel-air mixture may not be noticeable directly, but will show up as a reduction in the engine's power and fuel efficiency.
What is a Surface Discharge Spark Plug?
A surface discharge spark plug is designed to create a spark along the insulator nose at the firing end. This type of spark plug can be further classified into the semi-surface discharge type, supplementary gap type and intermittent discharge type.
A- Semi-surface discharge type
The wide gap of semi-surface discharge type improves ignition capability and is less sensitive to voltage requirement increases due to gap growth. Semi-surface discharge plugs burn away the carbon on the insulator nose to suppress a decline of insulator resistance.
B- Supplementary gap type
Spark discharge at the supplementary gap burns away the carbon on the insulator to suppress a decline of insulation resistance. The small clearance between the insulator supplementary gap prevents the carbon-included combustion gasses from entering the gas volume. This reduces the carbon accumulation on the insulator.
C- Intermittent discharge type
Spark discharge at intermittent gaps burn away the carbon on the insulator to suppress a decline of insulation resistance.
Spark Plug Part Numbering System Explained
Racing Spark Plugs
R = Racing
Maintenance of spark plugs
From old spark plugs which have been removed from the engine, you can clearly recognise from the damage patterns whether the engine is working well or not. From old spark plugs which have been removed from the engine, you can clearly recognise from the damage patterns whether the engine is working well or not. A spark plug that was removed from a well-functioning engine appears "dried out" - the areas around the electrodes appear dry, grizzled and exhibit tones ranging from white to yellow to brown. The electrodes, as well as the visible lug of the insulator do not normally show any significant signs of damage.
Spark Plug Defects Explained
A- Normal appearance
This is how an intact spark plug looks. The white/grey discolouration is harmless. It comes from fuel additives which leave residue when burned and the result is a controlled, normal combustion.
An intact spark plug shows a white-grey discolouring
Here you can see a spark plug with heavy deposits. This can be caused by poor fuel quality, high oil consumption from a mechanically-worn engine or burning of coolant from damaged cylinder head seals and can promote glow ignitions (the deposits glow after).
Heavy deposits accumulate as a result of poor fuel quality and defective engines burn oil, for example
C- Insulator breakage
An insulator break, as is visible in this image, can lead to engine damage. The cause of such insulator breakage is the use of the wrong torque or the spark plugs were dropped on a hard surface (e.g. workshop floor) before installation.
Insulator breakage can lead to engine damage
The middle and earth electrodes have melted together on this spark plug That happens if the spark plug overheats. In this case, it is also possible that the piston could melt. The cause could be the selection of the wrong spark plug (incorrect heat rating) or a malfunction of the engine (pulsatory combustion or glow ignition).
If a spark plug overheats the middle and earth electrodes melt together
E- Carbon deposits
Here you can see a spark plug clogged with carbon deposits. Carbon deposits appear if the spark plug is frequently operated below its self-cleaning temperature (450 °C) - for example, when only short distances are driven or an incorrect heat rating (too cold) was selected.
Carbon deposits appear if the spark plug is frequently operated below its self cleaning temperature (450 °C)
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