Table of Contents

1- Buying Guide

2- Leather Crash Testing Video

3- CE Armour Explained Video

4- Why wear protective gears Video

5- Safety Gears Protection in Action Video

6- Motorcycle Jackets Video

7- Motorcycle Hand signals for group riding Video

8- How are Helmets Made Video

9- How are steel toe boots made Video

10- How is an abrasion test done Video

11- Carlos Himalayan road Trip Video

12- RE Himalayan launch Full Video

13- Engine oil Explained (Text and Video)

14- RE EFI Pump fail explained (Text and Video)

15- Expensive Helmets and Affordable helmets Comparison Video

16- ABS Explained (Text and Video)

17- Spark Plugs Explained (Text and Video)

18- How are Air Filters made Video

19- How are Gears made Video

20- How are Shock Absorbers made Video

21- How are Engine Pistons made Video

22- How are Crankshaft and Camshafts made Video

23- How are Ball Bearings Made Video

24- How does a Manual transmission works Video

25- How does a Automatic transmission works Video

26- How does a Motorcycle Clutch works Video

27- Difference between clutch Slip vs Drag Video

28- DIY- How to make a Motorcycle Lift/Repair Table Video

29- Motor Vehicle Alteration Law in India (Complete Guide)

30- Turbocharger and Supercharger Complete Guide by Big J (Text & Video)

31- Honda Navi First Ride Impression Video

32- Royal Enfield Himalayan First Impression Video

33- Kawasaki Versys 650 Review Video

34- Yamaha YZF R3 vs KTM RC 390 vs Kawasaki Ninja 300 Review Video

35- India Bike Week 2016 Video

36- Indian Super Cross Championship Video

37- MV Agusta Line up Launch in India Video

38- Ducati Multistrada 1200S First Impression Video

39- Alpine Motorcycling Adventure Video

40- Somewhere Else Tomorrow Video

41- Farri & Daanish: A Motorcycling Pre-Wedding Video

42- It's Better in the Wind Short Film

43- The Great Journey Video

44- South America Beautiful Ride Video

45- Nepal Motorcycling on a Royal Enfield

46- Vietnam by Motorcycle Video

47- The Story so far Argentina, Chile & Bolivia Video

48- The Isle Of Man TT 2016 Video

49- Royal Enfield Custom Built Motorcycle for Wheels & Waves 2016

50- Worlds Toughest Off Road Motorbike Series Video

51- Hard Enduro- King of the Hills Video

52- Ducati Panigale 959 Review Video

53- India Road Master First Review Video

54- Yoshimura Factory Tour Video

55- Triumph Thruxton R launch Alert Video

56- Matt Capri RE Continental GT Customization Video (Part 1 & 2)

57- Life on a Royal Enfield Video by Ramblers MC

58- Enfield Riders Film Video.

59- RE 2015 Film "Ride forward on a Royal Enfield" Video

60- Wolf Pack India Video with Jack Jigg

61- Royal Enfield Escapade to Bhor 2016 Video

62- Belgium Impossible Climb Video

63- Wild Crashes & Insane FMX Moment Video 

64- Royal Enfield Factory Custom Bike Video


1- Buying Guide

Click Here To Download Full Guide


2- Bike Leather Crash Testing Video


3- What is CE Armour? 


4- Why Wear expensive protective gears?


5- Motorcycle Safety Gear protection in Action


6- How are Motorcycle Jackets made?


7- Motorcycle Hand Signals for Group Riding Explained


8- How are Motorcycle Helmets Made?


9- How are Steel Toe Boots made


10- How is an Abrasion Test done?


11- A Himalayan Road Trip by Carlos Costa


12- The Royal Enfield Himalayan (Full Video)


13- Motorcycle Engine Oil (Elaborated) By Big "J"

Lets understand whats Motorcycle engine oil is and Different Types. 

* Engine Oil- Motor oil or engine oil is an oil used for lubrication of various internal combustion engines. The main function is to lubricate moving parts; 

it also cleans, inhibits corrosion, improves sealing, and cools the engine by carrying heat away from moving parts. Motor oils are derived from petroleum-based and non-petroleum-synthesized chemical compounds. Motor oils today are mainly blended by using base oils composed of hydrocarbons, polyalphaolefins (PAO), and polyinternal olefins (PIO), thus organic compounds consisting entirely of carbon and hydrogen. 

The base oils of some high-performance motor oils however contain up to 20% by weight of esters. 

* Engine Oil Grades- The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has established a numerical code system for grading motor oils according to their viscosity characteristics. SAE viscosity gradings include the following, from low to high viscosity: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50 or 60. The numbers 0, 5, 10, 15 and 25 are suffixed with the letter W, designating their "winter" (not "weight") or cold-start viscosity, at lower temperature. The number 20 comes with or without a W, depending on whether it is being used to denote a cold or hot viscosity grade. The document SAE J300 defines the viscometrics related to these grades. Kinematic viscosity is graded by measuring the time it takes for a standard amount of oil to flow through a standard orifice, at standard temperatures. The longer it takes, the higher the viscosity and thus higher SAE code. The SAE has a separate viscosity rating system for gear, axle, and manual transmission oils, SAE J306, which should not be confused with engine oil viscosity. The higher numbers of a gear oil (e.g., 75W-140) do not mean that it has higher viscosity than an engine oil. 

* Single-grade- A single-grade engine oil, as defined by SAE J300, cannot use a polymeric Viscosity Index Improver (also referred to as Viscosity Modifier) additive. SAE J300 has established eleven viscosity grades, of which six are considered Winter-grades and given a W designation. The 11 viscosity grades are 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, 25W, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60. These numbers are often referred to as the "weight" of a motor oil, and single-grade motor oils are often called "straight-weight" oils. For single winter grade oils, the dynamic viscosity is measured at different cold temperatures, specified in J300 depending on the viscosity grade, in units of mPa·s, or the equivalent older non-SI units, centipoise (abbreviated cP), using two different test methods. They are the Cold Cranking Simulator (ASTMD5293) and the Mini-Rotary Viscometer (ASTM D4684). Based on the coldest temperature the oil passes at, that oil is graded as SAE viscosity grade 0W, 5W, 10W, 15W, 20W, or 25W. The lower the viscosity grade, the lower the temperature the oil can pass. For example, if an oil passes at the specifications for 10W and 5W, but fails for 0W, then that oil must be labeled as an SAE 5W. That oil cannot be labeled as either 0W or 10W. For single non-winter grade oils, the kinematic viscosity is measured at a temperature of 100 °C (212 °F) in units of mm2/s (millimeter squared per second) or the equivalent older non-SI units, centistokes (abbreviated cSt). Based on the range of viscosity the oil falls in at that temperature, the oil is graded as SAE viscosity grade 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60. In addition, for SAE grades 20, 30, and 1000, a minimum viscosity measured at 150 °C (302 °F) and at a high-shear rate is also required. The higher the viscosity, the higher the SAE viscosity grade is. For some applications, such as when the temperature ranges in use are not very wide, single-grade motor oil is satisfactory; for example, lawn mower engines, industrial applications, and vintage or classic cars. 

* Multi-grade- The temperature range the oil is exposed to in most vehicles can be wide, ranging from cold temperatures in the winter before the vehicle is started up, to hot operating temperatures when the vehicle is fully warmed up in hot summer weather. A specific oil will have high viscosity when cold and a lower viscosity at the engine's operating temperature. The difference in viscosities for most single-grade oil is too large between the extremes of temperature. To bring the difference in viscosities closer together, special polymer additives called viscosity index improvers, or VIIs are added to the oil. These additives are used to make the oil a multi-grade motor oil, though it is possible to have a multi-grade oil without the use of VIIs. The idea is to cause the multi-grade oil to have the viscosity of the base grade when cold and the viscosity of the second grade when hot. This enables one type of oil to be used all year. In fact, when multi-grades were initially developed, they were frequently described as all-season oil. The viscosity of a multi-grade oil still varies logarithmically with temperature, but the slope representing the change is lessened. This slope representing the change with temperature depends on the nature and amount of the additives to the base oil. The SAE designation for multi-grade oils includes two viscosity grades; for example, 10W-30 designates a common multi-grade oil. The two numbers used are individually defined by SAE J300 for single-grade oils. Therefore, an oil labeled as 10W-30 must pass the SAE J300 viscosity grade requirement for both 10W and 30, and all limitations placed on the viscosity grades (for example, a 10W-30 oil must fail the J300 requirements at 5W). Also, if an oil does not contain any VIIs, and can pass as a multi-grade, that oil can be labelled with either of the two SAE viscosity grades. For example, a very simple multi-grade oil that can be easily made with modern base oils without any VII is a 20W-20. This oil can be labeled as 20W-20, 20W, or 20. Note, if any VIIs are used however, then that oil cannot be labeled as a single grade. The real-world ability of an oil to crank or pump when cold is potentially diminished soon after it is put into service. The motor oil grade and viscosity to be used in a given vehicle is specified by the manufacturer of the vehicle (although some modern European cars now have no viscosity requirement), but can vary from country to country when climatic or fuel efficiency constraints come into play. 

* Synthetic oil- Synthetic lubricants were first synthesized, or man-made, in significant quantities as replacements for mineral lubricants (and fuels) by German scientists in the late 1930s and early 1940s because of their lack of sufficient quantities of crude for their (primarily military) needs. LA significant factor in its gain in popularity was the ability of synthetic-based lubricants to remain fluid in the sub-zero temperatures of the Eastern front in wintertime, temperatures which caused petroleum-based lubricants to solidify owing to their higher wax content. The use of synthetic lubricants widened through the 1950s and 1960s owing to a property at the other end of the temperature spectrum, the ability to lubricate aviation engines at temperatures that caused mineral-based lubricants to break down. In the mid 1970s, synthetic motor oils were formulated and commercially applied for the first time in automotive applications. The same SAE system for designating motor oil viscosity also applies to synthetic oils. Synthetic oils are derived from either Group III, Group IV, or some Group V bases. Synthetics include classes of lubricants like synthetic esters as well as "others" like GTL (Methane Gas-to-Liquid) (Group V) and polyalpha-olefins (Group IV). Higher purity and therefore better property control theoretically means synthetic oil has better mechanical properties at extremes of high and low temperatures. The molecules are made large and "soft" enough to retain good viscosity at higher temperatures, yet branched molecular structures interfere with solidification and therefore allow flow at lower temperatures. Thus, although the viscosity still decreases as temperature increases, these synthetic motor oils have a higher viscosity index over the traditional petroleum base. Their specially designed properties allow a wider temperature range at higher and lower temperatures and often include a lower pour point. With their improved viscosity index, synthetic oils need lower levels of viscosity index improvers, which are the oil components most vulnerable to thermal and mechanical degradation as the oil ages, and thus they do not degrade as quickly as traditional motor oils. However, they still fill up with particulate matter, although the matter better suspends within the oil, and the oil filter still fills and clogs up over time. So, periodic oil and filter changes should still be done with synthetic oil; but some synthetic oil suppliers suggest that the intervals between oil changes can be longer, sometimes as long as 16,000-24,000 km (10,000–15,000 mi) primarily due to reduced degradation by oxidation. Tests show that fully synthetic oil is superior in extreme service conditions to conventional oil, and may perform better for longer under standard conditions. But in the vast majority of vehicle applications, mineral oil based lubricants, fortified with additives and with the benefit of over a century of development, continue to be the predominant lubricant for most internal combustion engine applications. 

* A General View- The vast majority of modern motorcycles use the same oil to lubricate the engine, transmission, and the clutch (with the exception of bikes with dry clutches, such as Ducatis, Harley-Davidsons and some BMWs). Normal, "car-derived" motor oils are designed just for engines, but were historically suitable in motorcycles. However, some of the latest American Petroleum Institute, or API specifications are claimed to be completely unsuitable for motorcycles with wet clutches, although reports of clutch slippage may be exaggerated. Representative organisations of motorcycle manufactures, particularly Japanese Automotive Standards Organization, or JASO, work with lubricants manufacturers to create "motorcycle-specific" standards for oils. The relevant oil companies then develop and test automotive oils for motorcycle use. In return, they have two different products with the same chemical content. Many motorcycles have a wet clutch, where the clutch plates are immersed in oil. Some oils make the friction plates in the clutch slippery so that the clutch does not engage properly when shifting gears, or the clutch slips when the engine exceeds a certain torque level. Some oils contain friction reducing chemicals. A properly specified motorcycle oil will still allow for the appropriate lubrication and cooling of a motorcycle clutch, whilst maintaining 100% of the drive to be transmitted by the clutch, even under arduous operating conditions. One element of the JASO-MA standard is a friction test designed to determine suitability for wet clutch usage. An oil that meets JASO-MA is considered appropriate for wet clutch operations. Oils marketed as motorcycle-specific will carry the JASO-MA label. ***kindly Note this contents are extracted from wiki and to be used only for informational purposes. 

Why is Motul the best in Engine Oil? Watch all related Videos

Why is engine lubrication important?

Engine oil tips- What are lubricant standards? 

Engine oil tips - What's lubricant quality?

Engine Oil Tips - What is viscosity?

Engine Oil Tips - Viscosity Grades

What is Motul's ESTER Core® technology?


14- EFI Pump, How it works and why it Fails? (Solution by Big J). 

My personal verdict on the functionality of RE 500cc EFI Pump.

I am not an expert in this field and my research might be wrong, so please analyze & evaluate before accepting. Also please share your inputs.....

This is my verdict after doing my personal research since last Dec 2014, finally after  speaking with 2 experienced Engineers in racing field, RE support team and many blogs I read thru which explains about Japanese EFI technology on Royal Enfield Models. 

1- Standard EFI is the best device that has been set up on 500 cc bulls or any Japanese motorcycle in production line in India. The stock ECU is designed to automatically tune EFI with the amt of Oxygen mixture with petrol upon starting up the ignition. This is a std set up on all motorcycle with EFI and no aftermarket products are required. 

2- The O2 sensor on your bull expected to analyse data around the surrounding you are and send data to the EFI system for giving the right mixture the engine requires. This is still a std feature our stock ECU offers on all current EFI models RE is offering.

3- Considering the EFI mechanism is setup to operate over Fuel only (Wet Condition) inside ur tank. You tank need to have a qtr of gasoline at all times, if the fuel dries up, the EFI pump upon starting the ignition intakes air instead of fuel which can lead to air blockage inside the pump and it can disturb EFIs functionality or make it fail completely. 

Incase if you run out of fuel. Dont try starting the bike with 1 ltr fuel. Just turn the ignition off and rush to the nearest pump and get at least 5 ltrs of fuel. Wait for the EFI pump to get settled and then turn the ignition on. There is no jugaad to this. Do the Right Thing. 

4- While touring on high altitudes with a EFI model motorcycle like a 500cc classic EFI, as you elevate to higher altitudes or come down to lower altitudes. Your ECU should be made aware of the atmospheric conditions your motorcycle is in so that EFI functions error free. The goal is to make use of the ECU technology as much as possible so that the bike re-tunes itself for the oxygen conditions ahead. 

For e.g. If ur elevating from 4000 ft to 10000 ft. In a stretch for say 8 hrs time. Turn if Ur ignition off every 3000 ft as u ascend or descend so that depending on the oxygen level available around your surrounding the ECU can again re-tune the EFI. 

The Oxygen Sensor are the ones that Measures The Air-to-fuel Ratio In The Exhaust Gases. These Sensors Barometric In Nature i.e. 

They Sensors in your Motorcycle are equipped to transmit information with the help of ECU the Changes In Pressure, altitude,humidity, heat while your riding your Motorcycle. 

This is expected to yield best results on from ur EFI. 

Now whats EFI?

Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI) system for Royal Enfield motorcycles.

"EFI can be very intimidating to the uninitiated but I think I can tell you everything you need to know to take care of the system on your new EFI Royal Enfield in one short article. The EFI system replaces the carburetor and is actually a much simpler device. It consists of an injector unit, a throttle body, a computer (Chip), and several sensors installed on your bike. These sensors feed data to the chip and it, in turn, controls the precise air-fuel mixture. "EFI has been a turned into a big mystery by the industry when in fact it is much easier to diagnose and repair than a carburetor because it has so few moving parts it is so much more reliable. 

"Royal Enfield is also aware that many customers have long preferred to do their own repairs. For this reason, they insisted that a mere mortal with no special tools should be able to diagnose and repair this system. 

"The 'Check Engine' light will go on if something is not right. If that happens remove the seat. Find the wire that is attached to nothing. This wire comes from the EFI 'brain.' Touch that wire to the frame or any other ground. The check engine light will start to blink in a sequence of long and short blinks. 

For example, six short and six long. The sequence indicates which component is malfunctioning. If you know the right tuning, you can decode the sequence.

For example. six short and six long blinks, the sequence indicates that the crank sensor is not working correctly. Check the wiring connection to that device. If this clears the blinking, you're done. If not, replace the sensor and then you're done. If more than one unit is bad, when you clear the first sequence another will start but that is very unusual.

"This will take care of 98 per cent of all repairs on the EFI unit of the Royal Enfield. Now how simple this is. Also to Inform U On Your View On EFI System. 

EFI Comprises With? 

1. A Submerged Pump Located In Fuel Tank.
2. A Regulator that determines Its Operating Pressure.
3. A Electromechanical Device (injector) that injects Fuel To Intake manifold For a Predetermined Length Of Time Called The Injector Pulse

The Pulse Width Is Determined By The Engine’s Electronic Control Unit (ECU) and Depends On The Engine Temperature, The Engine Load And the Information from the Oxygen Sensor. 

Sensors Have The Vital Role In EFI System. These Are All Controlled By Pre-programmed Software feeding Information to the ECU to control the EFI pump. With Out These Things There Is No EFI System Not Yet Invented.

Dont be discouraged if you have a EFI model. You dont have to change the EFI to Carb. Just ensure it has enough fuel to keep the EFI pump at all times. This is one basic dos your expected to follow. 

EFI pump image....

ECU pic.. the brain of our bull...

The RE India and Export model sensor diagram.

MAP Sensor, how it works?

MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure) sensor measures the absolute pressure difference with the help of a diaphragm. To put the diaphragm in simple picture one side is the intake manifold and the other side is the throttle body. It works on 12V and is connected to the ECU. Now how does it communicate? It communicates with ECU via voltage. It sends 1V-5V if Im correct depending on the pressure difference. More vacuum in the manifold is communicated via higher volts to ECU. To fill this higher vacuum air rushes in from the airfilter - throttle body route and since ECU receives higher voltage it puts in more fuel to compensate for more air. *By fitting a free flow exhaust higher vacuum is created in the intake manifold since the exhaust gases are pushed out freely and this vacuum sucks in more air (need a K&N filter other wise the engine will run rich) and this extra air is compensated by extra fuel by the ECU with reference to the signal it receives from the MAP sensor. O2 sensor will make it a complete fool proof package but open loop system do work just as well. O2 sensors are more effective in cutting emission which makes it mandatory on export models. 

EFI Electrical (Image just for representation and It may differ from the actual). 

Fuel Injection jet (Image just for representation and It may differ from the actual). 

ECU the Brain of your Motorcycle, optimizes engine performance by using sensors to decide how to control certain actuators in an engine. ECU is primarily responsible for four tasks. Firstly, the ECU controls the fuel mixture. Secondly, the ECU controls idle speed. Thirdly, the ECU is responsible for ignition timing. Lastly, in some applications, the ECU controls valve timing. Fuel Injection jet- A vacuum-powered fuel pressure regulator at the end of the fuel rail ensures that the fuel pressure in the rail remains constant relative to the intake pressure. For a gasoline engine, fuel pressure is usually on the order of 35-50 psi. Fuel injectors connect to the rail, but their valves remain closed until the ECU decides to send fuel into the cylinders. Usually, the injectors have two pins. One pin is connected to the battery through the ignition relay and the other pin goes to the ECU. The ECU sends a pulsing ground to the injector, which closes the circuit, providing the injector's solenoid with current. The magnet on top of the plunger is attracted to the solenoid's magnetic field, opening the valve. Since there is high pressure in the rail, opening the valve sends fuel at a high velocity through the injector's spray tip. The duration that the valve is open- and consequently the amount of fuel sent into the cylinder- depends on the pulse width (i.e. how long the ECU sends the ground signal to the injector). When the plunger rises, it opens a valve and the injector sends fuel through the spray tip and into either the intake manifold, just upstream of the intake valve, or directly into the cylinder. The former system is called multi-port fuel injection and the latter is direct injection. 

Controlling Fuel Mixture Calculation (I don't know what this means)- Just for reference. 

When a rider accelerates his or her throttle, an throttle sensor sends a signal to the ECU, which then commands the throttle to open. The ECU takes information from the throttle position sensor until the throttle has reached the desired position set by the rider. But what happens next? Either a mass air flow sensor (MAF) or a Manifold Absolute Pressor Sensor (MAP) determines how much air is entering the throttle body and sends the information to the ECU. The ECU uses the information to decide how much fuel to inject into the cylinders to keep the mixture stoichiometric. The computer continually uses the TPS to check the throttle’s position and the MAP sensor to check how much air is flowing through the intake in order to adjust the pulse sent to the injectors, ensuring that the appropriate amount of fuel gets injected into the incoming air. In addition, the ECU uses the o2 sensors to figure out how much oxygen is in the exhaust. The oxygen content in the exhaust provides an indication of how well the fuel is burning. Between the MAF sensors and the 02 sensor, the computer fine-tunes the pulse that it sends to the injectors. Unfortunately this O2 Senson is only avaliable on RE Export Models.  

EFI Components from Enfield Workshop manual

Throttle Position Sensor (Behind Ur Battery) pic

Engine temperature Sensor pic.

Watch "Motorcycle Fuel Injection Systems video 1 by Yamaha Motor Corp." on YouTube 


15- Have you ever thought, why are some helmets so expensive? Does it mean expensive helmets much safer than affordable helmets?


16- How ABS works on a Motorcycle?

ABS, or the Anti-Lock Braking System, is a word we get to hear on an almost daily basis, but there are rather many fellows out there who don't know exactly what this system does and why they should mind it. Here is a short guide is to put some light on how the ABS works in motorcycles. 

What does ABS do?

The necessity for a safety system such as the ABS became obvious under hard braking conditions and when having to slow down on slippery surfaces, say wet asphalt. One of the biggest problems of braking hard when riding a motorcycle is the wheel or wheels lock-up.

As the rider detects a dangerous obstacle and squeezes the brakes, applying excessive force may cause the wheel to stop spinning and this leads to losing the grip. With no firm contact between the tire's contact patch and the asphalt or concrete, the bike becomes unstable and a crash is imminent.

The role of the ABS is to detect the wheel slip fractions of a second before it would normally occur because of the braking force and adjust or modulate the said force, allowing the wheel to keep turning back within the limits of grip.

Now, some would say that a system that counteracts the braking force is silly. It may look so at first, but the technology is really working to the rider's advantage.

The big problem with wheels slipping on the riding surface is that losing control of the whole motorcycle usually occurs in fractions of a second and restoring traction while keeping the bike balanced is only a result of luck, or extreme training, as is the case of professional stunt riders who drift.

Studies have showed that it's way better to prevent the wheels from slipping due to excessive braking force than it is to compensate for losing control, if any such compensation was truly possible.

So what the ABS does is actually limiting the braking force the rider exerts by either squeezing the lever or pressing the foot pedal and keep the wheel spinning. Once the imminence of the locking (and therefore skidding) is avoided, the system re-applies the maximum braking force until the next skid is anticipated. By limiting the max force of the braking maneuver, the ABS systems practically allow riders to use the greatest stopping force possible without locking the wheels.

How does the ABS know wheels would lock?

Good question! While the first ABS brakes relied on purely mechanical components and were terribly imprecise and often showed a very big lag, modern-day electronic technology has made things simpler.

Basically, ABS includes 4 major components: the sensor array, the control unit, the pump and the valves which physically regulate the braking force.

Sensors. While the early ABS technology proved to be unreliable due to a plethora of reading and interpretation errors, the modern systems are equipped with extremely precise sensors, redundant architecture and more safety/ failsafe systems.

The main sensor on a typical ABS is the speed sensor. Motorcycles equipped with ABS are easy to recognize by a special design of the brake discs: slotted design close to the center of the rotor tells even to the untrained eye, that the specific model is an ABS version. Those slots, called pulser rings act like measuring units for the sensors: the more times the sensors can read one another in a given period of time, the greater the speed.

Speed is measured constantly for feeding real-time data to the ABS ECU. While some bikes only have one-wheel ABS, most modern systems have dual-channel ECUs, meaning they receive info from both wheels.

A notable thing must be added: these sensors are detecting the actual speed of the wheels themselves, and not the absolute speed of the motorcycle in relation to the ground: it's exactly this variable that allows the ABS ECU to help detect whether wheel slip will occur in certain situations, as you'll see ahead.

Alongside wheel speed sensors, modern ABS also comprises gyroscopes and handlebar sensors for detecting the leaning angles of the bike. Knowing the bike's lean angle helps present-day ABS provide extended functionality when turning.


The ECU or Electronic Control Unit is the brain of the ABS: it receives info from all the sensors, analyzes the data, compares the results with the specific values and when needed, uses special algorithms to regulate the braking force.

This miniature computer is specialized in such operations and higher-spec ECUs can be constantly updated and can “learn” a lot of scenarios or maps to be used in certain situations.

Even street-oriented bikes come with different ABS mappings, maximizing the riding performance and providing safe braking in various scenarios. Thanks to the digital technology, these ABS mappings can be recalled and cycled through with just a press of a button and they become operational in milliseconds.

The ECU receives multiple readouts from all the bike sensors it is connected to and whose info it can interpret: the higher the frequency of these readouts and the comparison computations, the higher the efficiency of the ABS.

In case the ECU detects a scenario that matches to what the real world would see as a locking wheel followed by the inevitable skid, this computer sends a command to the pump and valves adjusting the braking force as necessary.

The pump and the valves 

These are the physical elements used by the ABS to control the braking force. Since the ABS is regulating the pressure in the brake lines, it needs a pump to work both ways, that is, decreasing and increasing the pressure to normal specifications.

While the pump acts like any casual electric pump using a master cylinder and a piston, the operation of the valves is equally simple. When the ABS kicks in, it means the braking pressure the rider applies to the discs is too big, and the ECU calculates how much it should lower it to prevent the wheels from losing grip.

The amount of “release” is sent as electronic data to the solenoid valves which are moved in the right position to decrease the pressure pushing the caliper pistons, easing the stopping force. As the wheel slip potential is eliminated, the ECU sends another command to the pump and moves the valves in another position, allowing the pressure of the initial braking maneuver to be restored and basically re-applying the hard brake.

This process only takes fractions of a second and it will be repeated until the bike stops. When the ABS works, riders will feel slight vibrations in the lever or pedal, as the pressure in the line is constantly modulated.

While some say that the same braking can be obtained by a professional trained rider, this is only partially true, as the human brain cannot have the processing and precision of the digital system in assessing the various riding environments.

ABS Myths

A common misconception among riders is that once they throw a leg over a bike equipped with ABS, all their problems are solved in an almost magical way. It's sad to admit it, but it's mostly such fellows who are getting into serious trouble because they are less aware while riding, relying on the false hope that the ABS brakes will compensate for their poor riding.

ABS is, by all means, a system developed to aid the rider in tight situations and it was never designed to take over basic safety precautions and maneuvers.

By allowing the rider to apply the absolute maximum braking force possible repeatedly without losing grip, the bike will obviously stop faster. 

Seasoned riders who know their bikes well can also predict when they are about to “lose” one of the wheels, and will ease the braking, reapplying the (almost) full force immediately, also avoiding wheel lock and slip. Well, this is exactly what ABS does, but thousands of times faster. This explanation should have cleared things.

More ABS magic

Modern ABS brakes in new machinery also come to the aid of the riders and contribute to greater safety. They are now interlinked with multiple other systems present on the bike and work together, providing their interpreted data and receiving feedback from other ECUs to offer safer launches, safer turning and easier braking.

Launch Control. When riding from a complete stop, the transmission has to deliver quite a lot of power to defeat inertia and get the bike moving. In quite a lot of such scenarios, a slightly excessive throttle can cause the rear wheel to slip and skid the bike out of control.

By predicting the slip, ABS sends the critical data to the bike and either brakes by itself or limits the fuel delivery, regardless of the throttle position. The bike will launch with the max power possible without any dangerous wheel slip.

Stability Control. A feature commonly met in powerful bikes, the SC helps the rider automatically ease the throttle and avoid skidding even while riding at high speed. Together with the info received from the leaning sensors, wheel sensors, throttle position and the bike's speed relative to the ground, the motorcycle's ECU array can detect whether the rider will be in trouble even before he or she manages to assess the danger.

Over- and understeering are happening all the time, but in some cases, they can lead to very bad results, such as the infamous highside crashes (when oversteering) or going wide, off the road, into guard rails and roadside vehicles/obstacles (when understeering).

While the trajectories through a turn are a complex combination of multiple factors, such as bike speed, leaning angle, road condition, tire type and condition and last but not least, rider experience, mistakes and errors occur at every few turns. The role of the ABS is to compensate the wheels' speed and maintain the best grip on a predictable track.

Finally, distributed ABS brakes now equip motorcycles, and they are so advanced so as to control the braking force for both the front and the rear wheel being only given a single command, i.e. pressing the brake pedal.

Working the same way all the way around, a corresponding rear brake force modulation is produced as the rider squeezes the front brake lever. All these new functions that ABS systems have today are also contributing to better bike stability when braking and swerving past obstacles in critical situations.

Given the major difference that stopping 1 or 2 meters earlier can make when a vehicle cuts a rider off or in any similar emergency scenario, buying a bike equipped with ABS seems a good investment in personal safety and property.

The following are the 3 major benefits of ABS 

1. Stopping Distance

As the braking force is controlled and applied electronically, the stopping distance reduces considerably in comparison with non-ABS bikes.

2. Sudden Braking

In the case of ABS, braking is intermittent in nature. So vehicle remains easily steerable during braking also. Following figure shows the comparison of normal bike and ABS-laden bike upon sudden braking.

3. Braking on Slippery surface

Most of the riders must have experienced this condition with their bikes and also know the results. ABS provides equal distribution of braking force on each wheel and provides straight line stopping of vehicle. 


17- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Spark Plugs Complete Guide" by "Big J"

What is a Spark Plug & what does it do? 

An internal combustion engine requires three key ingredients to operate: air, fuel and spark. A spark plug is a critical engine component that provides the spark that ignites the air-fuel mixture that drives an engine.

A spark plug operates by directing electrical current to flow through a centre electrode, forming a spark across an electrode (or air) gap, completing the circuit to a ground electrode. The centre electrode is surrounded by a ceramic insulator which is non-conductive preventing current leakage and ensuring electricity flows in the desired direction.

Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine.

(E) Exhaust camshaft

(I) Intake camshaft

(S) Spark plug

(V) Valves

(P) Piston

(R) Connecting rod

(C) Crankshaft

(W) Water jacket for coolant flow

Spark Plug Operation?

The plug is connected to the high voltage generated by an ignition coil or magneto. As current flows from the coil, a voltage develops between the central and side electrodes. Initially no current can flow because the fuel and air in the gap is an insulator, but as the voltage rises further it begins to change the structure of the gases between the electrodes. Once the voltage exceeds the dielectric strength of the gases, the gases become ionized. The ionized gas becomes a conductor and allows current to flow across the gap. Spark plugs usually require voltage of 12,000–25,000 volts or more to "fire" properly, although it can go up to 45,000 volts. They supply higher current during the discharge process, resulting in a hotter and longer-duration spark.

As the current of electrons surges across the gap, it raises the temperature of the spark channel to 60,000 K. The intense heat in the spark channel causes the ionized gas to expand very quickly, like a small explosion. This is the "click" heard when observing a spark, similar to lightning and thunder.

The heat and pressure force the gases to react with each other, and at the end of the spark event there should be a small ball of fire in the spark gap as the gases burn on their own. The size of this fireball, or kernel, depends on the exact composition of the mixture between the electrodes and the level of combustion chamber turbulence at the time of the spark. A small kernel will make the engine run as though the ignition timing was retarded, and a large one as though the timing was advanced. 

Spark Plug Types? 

The following table gives an example of the characteristics and service life of resistor spark plugs when used in a modern unleaded engine:


Centre Electrode

Ground Electrode

Service Life **


Nickel Alloy 



20,000 - 40,000 kms

Standard style Spark Plug


Centre Electrode

Ground Electrode

Service Life **


Nickel Alloy (V-Groove)



20,000 - 40,000 kms

Improved ignitability due to sparking at periphery of the electrode


Centre Electrode

Ground Electrode

Service Life **


Iridium IX

Iridium tip


60,000 kms

Long service life and even better ignitability due to a small diameter centre electrode


Centre Electrode

Ground Electrode

Service Life **


Laser Platinum

Platinum tip

Platinum pad/chip

100,000 kms

Extremely long service life. High ignitability due to fine tipped centre electrode


Centre Electrode

Ground Electrode

Service Life **


Laser Iridium 

Iridium tip

Platinum pad/chip

100,000 kms

Extremely long service life. Improved high ignitability due to fine tipped centre electrode


Centre Electrode

Ground Electrode

Service Life **


DFE Iridium (Double Fine)

Iridium tip

Platinum tip

100,000 kms

Superior ignitability due to fine tip centre and ground electrodes. Excellent service life.

Spark plug construction? 

A spark plug is composed of a shell, insulator and the central conductor. It passes through the wall of the combustion chamber and therefore must also seal the combustion chamber against high pressures and temperatures without deteriorating over long periods of time and extended use. Spark plugs are specified by size, either thread or nut (often referred to as Euro), sealing type (taper or crush washer), and spark gap. Common thread (nut) sizes in Europe are 10 mm (16 mm), 14 mm (21 mm; sometimes, 16 mm), and 18mm (24mm, sometimes, 21 mm). In the United States, common thread (nut) sizes are 10mm (16mm),12mm (14mm, 16mm or 17.5mm), 14mm (16mm, 20.63mm) and 18mm (20.63mm). 

Different Parts of the Spark Plug?

A- Terminal

The top of the spark plug contains a terminal to connect to the ignition system. The exact terminal construction varies depending on the use of the spark plug. Most passenger car spark plug wires snap onto the terminal of the plug, but some wires have eyelet connectors which are fastened onto the plug under a nut. Plugs which are used for these applications often have the end of the terminal serve a double purpose as the nut on a thin threaded shaft so that they can be used for either type of connection.

B- Insulator 

The main part of the insulator is typically made from sintered alumina, a very hard ceramic material with high dielectric strength, printed with the manufacturer's name and identifying marks, then glazed to improve resistance to surface spark tracking. Its major functions are to provide mechanical support and electrical insulation for the central electrode, while also providing an extended spark path for flashover protection. This extended portion, particularly in engines with deeply recessed plugs, helps extend the terminal above the cylinder head so as to make it more readily accessible.

Dissected modern spark plug showing the one-piece sintered alumina insulator. The lower portion is unglazed. A further feature of sintered alumina is its good heat conduction – reducing the tendency for the insulator to glow with heat and so light the mixture prematurely.

C- Ribs 

By lengthening the surface between the high voltage terminal and the grounded metal case of the spark plug, the physical shape of the ribs functions to improve the electrical insulation and prevent electrical energy from leaking along the insulator surface from the terminal to the metal case. The disrupted and longer path makes the electricity encounter more resistance along the surface of the spark plug even in the presence of dirt and moisture. Some spark plugs are manufactured without ribs; improvements in the dielectric strength of the insulator make them less important.

D- Insulator tip

On modern (post 1930s) spark plugs, the tip of the insulator protruding into the combustion chamber is the same sintered aluminium oxide (alumina) ceramic as the upper portion, merely unglazed. It is designed to withstand 650 °C (1,200 °F) and 60 kV.

The dimensions of the insulator and the metal conductor core determine the heat range of the plug. Short insulators are usually "cooler" plugs, while "hotter" plugs are made with a lengthened path to the metal body, though this also depends on the thermally conductive metal core. Older spark plugs, particularly in aircraft, used an insulator made of stacked layers of mica, compressed by tension in the centre electrode.

With the development of leaded petrol in the 1930s, lead deposits on the mica became a problem and reduced the interval between needing to clean the spark plug. Sintered alumina was developed by Siemens in Germany to counteract this.[8] Sintered alumina is a superior material to mica or porcelain because it is a relatively good thermal conductor for a ceramic, it maintains good mechanical strength and (thermal) shock resistance at higher temperatures, and this ability to run hot allows it to be run at "self cleaning" temperatures without rapid degradation. It also allows a simple single piece construction at low cost but high mechanical reliability. 

E- Seals 

Because the spark plug also seals the combustion chamber or the engine when installed, seals are required to ensure there is no leakage from the combustion chamber. The internal seals of modern plugs are made of compressed glass/metal powder, but old style seals were typically made by the use of a multi-layer braze. The external seal is usually a crush washer, but some manufacturers use the cheaper method of a taper interface and simple compression to attempt sealing.

F- Metal case/shell 

The metal case/shell (or the jacket, as many people call it) of the spark plug withstands the torque of tightening the plug, serves to remove heat from the insulator and pass it on to the cylinder head, and acts as the ground for the sparks passing through the central electrode to the side electrode. Spark plug threads are cold rolled to prevent thermal cycle fatigue. It's important to install spark plugs with the correct "reach," or thread length. Spark plugs can vary in reach from .0375" to 1.043", such for automotive and small engine applications. Also, a marine spark plug's shell is double-dipped, zinc-chromate coated metal. 

G- Central electrode 

Central and lateral electrodes

The central electrode is connected to the terminal through an internal wire and commonly a ceramic series resistance to reduce emission of RF noise from the sparking. Non-resistor spark plugs, commonly sold without an "R" in the plug type part number, lack this element to reduce electromagnetic interference with radios and other sensitive equipment. The tip can be made of a combination of copper, nickel-iron, chromium, or noble metals. In the late 1970s, the development of engines reached a stage where the heat range of conventional spark plugs with solid nickel alloy centre electrodes was unable to cope with their demands. A plug that was cold enough to cope with the demands of high speed driving would not be able to burn off the carbon deposits caused by stop–start urban conditions, and would foul in these conditions, making the engine misfire. Similarly, a plug that was hot enough to run smoothly in town could melt when called upon to cope with extended high speed running on motorways. The answer to this problem, devised by the spark plug manufacturers, was to use a different material and design for the centre electrode that would be able to carry the heat of combustion away from the tip more effectively than a solid nickel alloy could. Copper was the material chosen for the task and a method for manufacturing the copper-cored centre electrode was created by Floform.

The central electrode is usually the one designed to eject the electrons (the cathode, i.e. negative polarity) because it is the hottest (normally) part of the plug; it is easier to emit electrons from a hot surface, because of the same physical laws that increase emissions of vapor from hot surfaces (see thermionic emission). In addition, electrons are emitted where the electrical field strength is greatest; this is from wherever the radius of curvature of the surface is smallest, from a sharp point or edge rather than a flat surface (see corona discharge). It would be easiest to pull electrons from a pointed electrode but a pointed electrode would erode after only a few seconds. Instead, the electrons emit from the sharp edges of the end of the electrode; as these edges erode, the spark becomes weaker and less reliable.

At one time it was common to remove the spark plugs, clean deposits off the ends either manually or with specialized sandblasting equipment and file the end of the electrode to restore the sharp edges, but this practice has become less frequent for two reasons:

1. cleaning with tools such as a wire brush leaves traces of metal on the insulator which can provide a weak conduction path and thus weaken the spark (increasing emissions). 

2. Plugs are so cheap relative to labor cost, economics dictate replacement, particularly with modern long-life plugs.

The development of noble metal high temperature electrodes (using metals such as yttrium, iridium, tungsten, or palladium, as well as the relatively high value platinum, silver or gold) allows the use of a smaller center wire, which has sharper edges but will not melt or corrode away. These materials are used because of their high melting points and durability, not because of their electrical conductivity (which is irrelevant in series with the plug resistor or wires). The smaller electrode also absorbs less heat from the spark and initial flame energy. At one point, Firestone marketed plugs with polonium in the tip, under the (questionable) theory that the radioactivity would ionize the air in the gap, easing spark formation. 

Spark Plug Gap Explained

Gap gauge: A disk with sloping edge; the edge is thicker going counter-clockwise, and a spark plug will be hooked along the edge to check the gap. Spark plugs are typically designed to have a spark gap which can be adjusted by the technician installing the spark plug, by bending the ground electrode slightly. The same plug may be specified for several different engines, requiring a different gap for each. Spark plugs in automobiles generally have a gap between 0.6–1.8 mm (0.024"–0.070"). The gap may require adjustment from the out-of-the-box gap. 

A spark plug gap gauge is a disc with a sloping edge, or with round wires of precise diameters, and is used to measure the gap. Use of a feeler gauge with flat blades instead of round wires, as is used on distributor points or valve lash, will give erroneous results, due to the shape of spark plug electrodes. The simplest gauges are a collection of keys of various thicknesses which match the desired gaps and the gap is adjusted until the key fits snugly. With current engine technology, universally incorporating solid state ignition systems and computerized fuel injection, the gaps used are larger on average than in the era of carburetors and breaker point distributors, to the extent that spark plug gauges from that era cannot always measure the required gaps of current cars. Vehicles using compressed natural gas generally require narrower gaps than vehicles using gasoline. 

The gap adjustment can be crucial to proper engine operation. A narrow gap may give too small and weak a spark to effectively ignite the fuel-air mixture, but the plug will almost always fire on each cycle. A gap that is too wide might prevent a spark from firing at all or may misfire at high speeds, but will usually have a spark that is strong for a clean burn. A spark which intermittently fails to ignite the fuel-air mixture may not be noticeable directly, but will show up as a reduction in the engine's power and fuel efficiency.

What is a Surface Discharge Spark Plug? 

A surface discharge spark plug is designed to create a spark along the insulator nose at the firing end. This type of spark plug can be further classified into the semi-surface discharge type, supplementary gap type and intermittent discharge type. 

A- Semi-surface discharge type

The wide gap of semi-surface discharge type improves ignition capability and is less sensitive to voltage requirement increases due to gap growth. Semi-surface discharge plugs burn away the carbon on the insulator nose to suppress a decline of insulator resistance. 

B- Supplementary gap type

Spark discharge at the supplementary gap burns away the carbon on the insulator to suppress a decline of insulation resistance. The small clearance between the insulator supplementary gap prevents the carbon-included combustion gasses from entering the gas volume. This reduces the carbon accumulation on the insulator.

C- Intermittent discharge type

Spark discharge at intermittent gaps burn away the carbon on the insulator to suppress a decline of insulation resistance.

Spark Plug Part Numbering System Explained

Racing Spark Plugs







R = Racing

Serial Number

Heat Range

Maintenance of spark plugs

From old spark plugs which have been removed from the engine, you can clearly recognise from the damage patterns whether the engine is working well or not. From old spark plugs which have been removed from the engine, you can clearly recognise from the damage patterns whether the engine is working well or not. A spark plug that was removed from a well-functioning engine appears "dried out" - the areas around the electrodes appear dry, grizzled and exhibit tones ranging from white to yellow to brown. The electrodes, as well as the visible lug of the insulator do not normally show any significant signs of damage.

Spark Plug Defects Explained

A- Normal appearance

This is how an intact spark plug looks. The white/grey discolouration is harmless. It comes from fuel additives which leave residue when burned and the result is a controlled, normal combustion.

An intact spark plug shows a white-grey discolouring

B- Deposits

Here you can see a spark plug with heavy deposits. This can be caused by poor fuel quality, high oil consumption from a mechanically-worn engine or burning of coolant from damaged cylinder head seals and can promote glow ignitions (the deposits glow after). 

Heavy deposits accumulate as a result of poor fuel quality and defective engines burn oil, for example

C- Insulator breakage

An insulator break, as is visible in this image, can lead to engine damage. The cause of such insulator breakage is the use of the wrong torque or the spark plugs were dropped on a hard surface (e.g. workshop floor) before installation. 

Insulator breakage can lead to engine damage

D- Melting

The middle and earth electrodes have melted together on this spark plug That happens if the spark plug overheats. In this case, it is also possible that the piston could melt. The cause could be the selection of the wrong spark plug (incorrect heat rating) or a malfunction of the engine (pulsatory combustion or glow ignition). 

If a spark plug overheats the middle and earth electrodes melt together

E- Carbon deposits

Here you can see a spark plug clogged with carbon deposits. Carbon deposits appear if the spark plug is frequently operated below its self-cleaning temperature (450 °C) - for example, when only short distances are driven or an incorrect heat rating (too cold) was selected. 

Carbon deposits appear if the spark plug is frequently operated below its self cleaning temperature (450 °C)


18- MotorcycleGears.In presents How It's Made-Air Filters video by ‪#‎HowItsMade513‬


19- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How are gears made" video by #JonM


20- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How are Shock Absorbers made" video by #Danny


21- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How are Engine Pistons made" video by #HowItsMade


22- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How are Crankshaft and Camshafts made" video by #DSCDocumentaries


23- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How are Ball Bearings made" video by #TRR56


24- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How does a Manual Transmission works" video by #LearnEngineering


25- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How does a Automatic Transmission works" video by #LearnEngineering


26- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "How does a Motorcycle Clutch works" video by #Briansmobile & #PonyPower

Video #1

Video #2


27- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Difference between Clutch Slip vs Drag" video by #RekluseMotorSports


28- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "DIY- How to make a Motorcycle Lift/Repair Table" video by #BikeBandit



Motor Vehicle Alteration or Conversion RTO Guidelines

Any alteration in respect of the vehicle, which changes or modifies the particulars noted in the certificate of registration, shall not be done without the prior permission of the registering authority. (Sec 52 MV Act).

To obtain prior permission of the Registering Authority for the proposed alteration, an application shall be made in form 29 KMV along with Registration certificate, Insurance, Emission certificate, consent letter of the financier for the proposed alteration if the vehicle is covered by HPA/Lease agreement.

The fee for alteration is Rs. 50/-

After verification of the application, permission will be granted.

Alteration can be effected after the permission is granted.

The vehicle has to produced before the Inspecting Authority for inspection.

After the inspection, if the alteration effected is complied with Motor Vehicles Act and Rules made thereunder and on the remarks of Inspecting Authority, the alteration will be noted in the RC book.

Consequent on alteration, the difference of tax shall be paid by the registered owner.

Chassis alteration:

If the chassis is damaged due to accident, the old chassis has to be inspected by the Inspector of Motor vehicles and a report on the condition of the chassis has to be obtained. On the report of the Inspector that, the old chassis is damaged beyond repairs and is unsuitable for use, permission to alter the chassis will be granted and a new chassis number will be allotted. This new number has to be punched on the chassis and produced for inspection. After inspection, the new chassis number will be recorded in the registration certificate and records.

Fitment of LPG kits:

LPG kits have to be purchased and fitted to the vehicles from authorized manufacturers/dealers approved by the Transport Commissioner. Only such applications will be considered for alteration.


For More details, please contact P. R. O/A. R. T. O/R. T. O (


RTO Forms Available for Vehicle Alteration or Conversion (Maharashtra Only).

  • Form 20 (Form of Application for Registration of a Motor Vehicle).
  • Form 26 (Intimation of loss or destruction etc. of the certificate of registration and application
  • For the issue of Duplicate Certificate of Registration).
  • Form 28 (Form of application for ‘No Objection Certificate and grant of Certificate).
  • Form 29 (Form of notice of Transfer of Ownership of a Motor Vehicle).
  • Form 30 (Report of Transfer of Ownership of a Motor Vehicle).
  • Form AT (Form of Declaration to be made in respect of a Motor Vehicle Used or kept for use in the state).
  • Form BT (Declaration of alteration to a motor vehicles).
  • Form BTI (Notice in regard to alteration in a motor vehicle). 

Alteration on Motor Vehicle Section 52 Elaborated

(1) No owner of a motor vehicle shall so alter the vehicle that the particulars contained in the certificate of registration are no longer accurate, unless-

(a) he has given notice to the registering authority within jurisdiction he has the residence or the place of business where the vehicle is normally kept, as the case may be, of the alternation he proposes to make; and

(b) he has obtained the approval of the registering authority to make such alteration.

Provided that it shall not be necessary to obtain such approval for making any change in the unladen weight of the motor vehicle consequent on the addition or removal of fittings or accessories, if such change does not exceed two per cent of the weight entered in the certificate of registration.

[Provided further that modification of the engine, or any part thereof, of vehicle for facilitating its operation by a different type of or source of energy including battery, compressed natural gas, solar power or any other fuel or source of energy other than liquid petroleum gas shall be treated as an alteration but that shall be subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.]

(2) Where a registering authority receives a notice under sub-section (1), it shall, within seven days of the receipt thereof, communicate, by post, to the owner of the vehicle its approval to the proposed alteration or otherwise.

Provided that where the owner of the motor vehicle has not received any such communication within the said period of seven days, the approval of such authority to the proposed alteration shall be deemed to have given.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), a State Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, authorize, subject to such conditions as may be specified in the notification, the owner of not less than ten transport vehicles to alter any vehicle owned by them so as to replace the engine thereof without the approval of the registering authority.

(4) Where any alteration has been made in a motor vehicle either with the approval of registering authority given or deemed to have been given under sub-section (2) or by reason of replacement of it engine without such approval under sub-section (3), the owner of the vehicle shall, within fourteen days of the making of the alteration, report the alteration to the registering authority within whose jurisdiction he resides and shall forward the certificate of registration to that authority together with the prescribed fee in order that particulars of the alteration may be entered therein.

(5) A registering authority other than the original registering authority making any such entry shall communicate the details of the entry to the original registering authority.

1[(6) No person holding a vehicle under a hire-purchase agreement shall make any alteration to the vehicle for which approval of the registering authority is required under sub-section (1), except with the written consent of the registered owner.]

Explanation- For the purposes of this section, "alteration" means a change in the structure of a vehicle which results in change in its basic feature.

Useful links for Motor Vehicle Acts (Maharashtra only).

• Motor Vehicle Act of 1988-
• Maharashtra Motor Vehicle Rules of 1989-
• Central motor Vehicle Rule 1989 (CMVR)-
• Maharashtra Motor Vehicle taxation of Passengers Act-
• Maharashtra Motor Vehicle taxation of Passengers Rule-
• Maharashtra Motor Vehicle Tax Act-

30- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Turbocharger and Supercharger Complete Guide" by Big J

A turbocharger is a device driven by exhaust gases that increases engine power by pumping air into the combustion chambers. Combustion is limited not by the amount of fuel that can be injected but by the amount of air an engine can gulp in to mix with that fuel. 

Forcing air into an engine’s intake manifold at higher-than-atmospheric pressure allows more fuel to be burned, which results in higher output. The related supercharger also compresses intake air but is driven by a belt, chain or gears. 

To oversimplify, the turbocharger employs two encased fans mounted on either end of a common shaft. The engine’s exhaust gases are routed through one fan, called the turbine, which rotates the shaft. This, in turn, spins the opposite fan, called the compressor, which compresses the air entering the engine’s intake manifold.

Components of a Turbocharger

(1)  The turbine wheel 
(2)  The turbine housing
(3)  Exhaust gas 
(4)  Exhaust outlet area
(5)  The compressor wheel 
(6)  The compressor housing
(7)  Forged steel shaft 
(8)  Compressed air

Turbo and superchargers often work in tandem with an intercooler, which serves to cool the compressed air before it enters the engine. Compressing the air heats it, which makes it less dense and negates some of the positive effect, and may cause pinging or knocking. Intercoolers typically are simple radiators through which the intake air passes to shed some heat, increasing the density before combustion. The “inter” means between, as intercoolers are positioned between the turbo and the intake manifold.

What is an Intercooler?

An intercooler is a type of radiator that cools the air compressed by a supercharger or turbocharger. Compressing the air heats it, which makes it less dense, negating some of the positive effect of supercharging and turbocharging. Hot intake air can cause combustion anomalies as well. Intercoolers typically are simple radiators through which the intake air passes to shed some heat, increasing the density before combustion. The “inter” means between, as intercoolers are positioned between the turbo or supercharger and the intake manifold.

An Intercooler

Lets Understand How does a TurboCharger Wastegate works?

Now let us see How does a Turbocharger works?

(1)  The turbine wheel 
(2)  The turbine housing
(3)  Exhaust gas 
(4)  Exhaust outlet area
(5)  The compressor wheel 
(6)  The compressor housing
(7)  Forged steel shaft 
(8)  Compressed air

A turbocharger is made up of two main sections: The Turbine & The Compressor. The turbine consists of the (1) turbine wheel and the (2) turbine housing. It is the job of the turbine housing to guide the (3) exhaust gas into the turbine wheel. The energy from the exhaust gas turns the turbine wheel, and the gas then exits the turbine housing through an (4) exhaust outlet area. The compressor also consists of two parts: the (5) compressor wheel and the (6) compressor housing. The compressor’s mode of action is opposite that of the turbine. The compressor wheel is attached to the turbine by a (7) forged steel shaft, and as the turbine turns the compressor wheel, the high-velocity spinning draws in air and compresses it. The compressor housing then converts the high-velocity, low-pressure air stream into a high-pressure, low-velocity air stream through a process called diffusion. The (8) compressed air is pushed into the engine, allowing the engine to burn more fuel to produce more power.

Turbochargers have advantages and disadvantages. 

The main advantage — which propelled their adoption in production vehicles in the past two decades — is that they grant power on demand from otherwise efficient, compact, usually four-cylinder engines. The disadvantages include additional cost, complexity and, in actual use, turbo lag. Turbo lag is the delay in response that occurs when the driver tromps on the accelerator. The turbo takes a second or two (or more) to get up to a speed at which it’s compressing the intake air enough to effect an output increase. Over the years, attempts to lessen turbo lag have come mainly in the form of twin turbo designs. Nowadays, the combination of sophisticated computerized engine-management systems and single, low-mass turbines seems to be making great strides for Saab and Audi, among others.

As for the engineering and cost factors, turbos typically require the use of stronger pistons, connecting rods and crankshafts than the same engine without a turbocharger would need. Turbos generate considerable additional heat and cause the engine itself to run hotter, so heat-resistant valves and a larger cooling-system radiator are common. The turbine may spin at rates above 100,000 rpm, which requires an ample supply of pressurized engine oil, along with a higher-volume oil pump and perhaps an oil cooler. Heat is one of oil’s greatest enemies, so turbocharged vehicles require shorter oil-change intervals — or at least carry a higher likelihood of damage when the schedule isn’t kept.

What is a Supercharger?

A Supercharger increases engine power by pumping air into the combustion chambers. Combustion is limited not by the amount of fuel that can be injected but by the amount of air an engine can gulp in to mix with that fuel. Forcing air into an engine’s intake manifold at higher-than-atmospheric pressure allows more fuel to be burned, which results in higher output. The related turbocharger also compresses intake air but is driven by the rush of exhaust gases past a turbine. In production vehicles, rubber belts typically drive the supercharger, which compresses the air before it enters the engine’s intake manifold.

Turbo and superchargers often work in tandem with an intercooler, which serves to cool the compressed air before it enters the engine. Compressing the air heats it, which makes it less dense and negates some of the positive effect, and causes pinging or knocking. Intercoolers typically are simple radiators through which the intake air passes to shed some heat, increasing the density before combustion. The “inter” means between, as intercoolers are positioned between the supercharger and the intake manifold.

Superchargers have advantages and disadvantages. The main advantage is that they increase the power output of an engine of a given size, which is especially useful in vehicles that wouldn’t accommodate a larger engine. The disadvantages include additional cost, complexity and decreased fuel economy.

Root Superchargers - Explained (Video)

Centrifugal Superchargers - Explained (Video)

Twin-Screw Superchargers - Explained (Video)

Forced Induction: 3D Supercharger Animation Video

Forced induction Superchargers vs Turbochargers Explained

In contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains, shafts, and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the engine. For example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower (110 kilowatts). Yet the benefits outweigh the costs; for the 150 hp (110 kW) to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 400-horsepower, a net gain of 250 hp (190 kW). This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent; the engine must withstand the net power output of the engine plus the power to drive the supercharger.

Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers (especially Roots-type superchargers). Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor's ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Even under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated output temperature; however, more efficient compressors produce less excess heat. Roots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers often producing 15% to 30% more power based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency (however, due to heat transfer from the hot exhaust, considerable heating does occur).

By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses. This is more efficient, because while the increased back pressure taxes the piston exhaust stroke, much of the energy driving the turbine is provided by the still-expanding exhaust gas that would otherwise be wasted as heat through the tailpipe. In contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as "lag" or "spool time". This is the time between the demand for an increase in power (the throttle being opened) and the turbocharger(s) providing increased intake pressure, and hence increased power.

Throttle lag occurs because turbochargers rely on the buildup of exhaust gas pressure to drive the turbine. In variable output systems such as automobile engines, exhaust gas pressure at idle, low engine speeds, or low throttle is usually insufficient to drive the turbine. Only when the engine reaches sufficient speed does the turbine section start to spool up, or spin fast enough to produce intake pressure above atmospheric pressure.

A combination of an exhaust-driven turbocharger and an engine-driven supercharger can mitigate the weaknesses of both. This technique is called twincharging.

In the case of Electro-Motive Diesel's two-stroke engines, the mechanically assisted turbocharger is not specifically a twincharger, as the engine uses the mechanical assistance to charge air only at lower engine speeds and startup. Once above notch # 5, the engine uses true turbocharging. This differs from a turbocharger that uses the compressor section of the turbo-compressor only during starting and, as a two-stroke engines cannot naturally aspirate, and, according to SAE definitions, a two-stroke engine with a mechanically assisted compressor during idle and low throttle is considered naturally aspirated.


31- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Honda Navi First Ride Impression Video" by #PowerDrift


32- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Royal Enfield Himalayan First Ride Impression Video" by #PowerDrift


33- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Kawasaki Versys 650 Review Video" by #PowerDrift


34- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Yamaha YZF R3 vs KTM RC 390 vs Kawasaki Ninja 300 Review Video" by #PowerDrift


35- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "India Bike Week 2016 Video" by #PowerDrift


36- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Indian Super Cross Championship Video" by #PowerDrift


37- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "MV Agusta line up launch in India Video" by #PowerDrift


38- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Ducati Multistrada 1200S First Ride Impression Video" by #PowerDrift


39- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Alpine motorcycling Adventure Video" by #eGarage


40- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Somewhere Else Tomorrow Video" by #Open-Explorers


41- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Fari & Daanish: Motorcycling Pre-Wedding Video" by #PointiRamanta


42- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "It's Better in the Wind Short Film" by #ScottToepfer


43- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "The Great Journey Video" by #bcnDrone


44- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "South America- A beautiful Ride Video" by #jasonspafford


45- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Nepal Motorcycling on a Royal Enfield Video" by #HarryLocke


46- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Vietnam by Motorcycle Video" by #Choopacabra


47- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "The Story So far Argentina, Chile & Bolivia Video" by #jasonspafford


48- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "The Isle Of Man TT 2016 Video" by #VRFSportsFan


49- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Wheels & Waves 2016 Royal Enfield Custom built Motorcycle Video" by #RoyalEnfield


50- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Worlds Toughest off Road Motorbike Series Video" by #Redbull


51- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Hard Enduro- King of The Hills Video" by #Redbull


52- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Ducati Panigale 959 Review Video" by #PowerDrift


53- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Indian RoadMaster First Ride Video" by #AutocarsIndia


54- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Yoshimura Factory Tour Japan Video" by #HoonTV


55- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Triumph Thruxton R launch Video" by #PowerDrift


56- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Matt Capri customizing the Royal Enfield Continental GT Video Part 1 & 2" by #Royal Enfield


57- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Life on a Royal Enfield Video" by #Ramblers MC


58- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Enfield Riders Film Video" by #Enfield Riders


59- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Ride Forward on a Royal Enfield Video" by #VishnuEV


60- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Film Institute Student Project on Wolf Pack India Video" by #JackJigg


61- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Royal Enfield Escapade 2016 Bhor Video" by #RoyalEnfield


62- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Impossible Climb Belgium Video" by #BestMotorcycleVideos


63- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Wild Crashes & Insane FMX Moments Video" by #RedBull


64- #MotorcycleGears.In presents "Royal Enfield 2 new factory Custom Mod Video" by #ChatNoirPrdctnLTD


65- #MotorcycleGears.In presents " Video" by #HoonTV


66- #MotorcycleGears.In presents " Video" by #HoonTV